Dual-Doppler analyses from DOW data will be shown of the many vortices (sub-km to multi-km diameters) observed within LLAP storms. The evolution of the width, depth, and spacing between vortices from the 7 Jan 2014 event will be compared to previous lake-effect studies in this region and over the Sea of Japan. Other characteristics that will be discussed include relative vorticity values, vertical motions within and nearby the vortices, and proximity thermodynamic measurements in order to test hypotheses to explain their development. Many of the vortices formed on boundaries, boundaries that may form due to cold pools originating from sublimating ice particles near the ground near the northern edge of the band (which had a very sharp reflectivity gradient). Strong horizontal shear was near the boundary (faster westerly momentum within the north side of the band and much weaker momentum just to the north of the band edge), but the cause of this shear is still under investigation. Therefore horizontal shear instability can explain miso-vortex development, but tilting and stretching of vorticity will also be tested as an explanation for the larger vortices (e.g., similar to mesocyclone development in supercell thunderstorms?). WRF model simulations replicated the line of vortices seen in this case and will be compared to the DOW observations.
Lastly, lightning occurred during the same period and within 5-10 km when the misocyclones were frequent during the 7 Jan event. Surface reports by student research assistants in the field reported an increase in the frequency of strong wind gusts nearby the line of misovortices and lightning.