In order to reveal characteristics of environments for PMCs' development, a composite analysis for each type pf PMCs is performed. The results of the composite analysis are summarized as follows:
(1) Type-NW PMCs are formed in a convergence zone extending southeastward from the root of Korean Peninsula. The convergence zone corresponds to a surface trough extending westward from a preceding synoptic-scale cyclone which starts to develop as a trough at 500 hPa approaches the Sea of Japan from west. The direction of their movement depends on their distance to the preceding synoptic-scale cyclone.
(2) Type-NWe PMCs are located near or sometimes collocated with the synoptic-scale cyclone, and to the east of an advancing trough at 500 hPa. Type-NWs PMCs are located far from the synoptic-scale cyclone and to the south of a trough at 500 hPa. Type-NWse PMCs have intermediate characteristic between Type-NWe and NWs PMCs.
(3) Type-SW PMCs are formed in a convergence zone between northeasterly over the Sea of Japan and northwesterly from Korean Peninsula when a surface trough extends from south over the East China Sea. Type-SW PMCs reach their peak intensity when a trough at 500 hPa advances eastward and comes nearly right above the PMCs.
(4) Type-HI PMCs are formed at the western edge of a surface trough extending westward from a synoptic-scale cyclone over the Pacific Ocean. These PMCs move southward as the synoptic-scale cyclone moves northeastward and the surface trough rotates counterclockwise. A cold vortex exists above the PMCs
Numerical simulations are also performed in which the composite fields are used for the initial and boundary fields, where no incipient PMC is imposed in the initial field. It turned out that the numerical simulations successfully reproduce all the above types of the PMCs from their genesis to the mature stage, demonstrating the generality of the composite field as the environment of the PMCs.