13A.1 Reduced-Cost Construction of Jacobian Matrices for High-Resolution Inverse Modeling: An Application to Optimizing North American Methane Sources from TROPOMI Satellite Data

Thursday, 16 January 2020: 10:30 AM
211 (Boston Convention and Exhibition Center)
Hannah Nesser, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; and D. J. Jacob, J. Maasakkers, M. Sulprizio, Y. Zhang, and T. Scarpelli

Global high-resolution observations of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from satellites can greatly improve our understanding of surface emissions through inverse analyses. For example, the new TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) retrieves daily global observations of atmospheric methane concentrations at 7x7 km2 pixel resolution. Variational inverse methods can optimize surface emissions globally at this resolution but do not readily provide error characterization, including information content, for the posterior solution. In fact, the information content of the satellite data may be considerably lower than the data density would suggest because of limited retrieval success rate, instrument noise, and error correlations that propagate through the inversion. This could lead to smoothing errors in variational methods. An analytic inverse solution provides closed-form characterization of the posterior error statistics and information content but requires the construction of the Jacobian matrix relating emissions to atmospheric concentrations. Building the Jacobian matrix is computationally expensive at fine resolution because it involves perturbing each emission element, typically individual grid cells, in the atmospheric transport model. We propose a method to greatly decrease the computational cost of analytic inversions by constructing the Jacobian matrix using only the emission elements with sufficient information content from the observations. Starting from an initial estimate of the Jacobian matrix that assumes simple transport, we iteratively apply perturbations to the leading patterns of information content rather than to the individual model grid cells. The resulting matrix optimizes emissions only in areas spanned by these leading patterns. We demonstrate the method in an analytic Bayesian inversion of TROPOMI data over North America in July 2018. We confirm that the estimated Jacobian matrix produces posterior emission estimates and error covariances that are similar to an inversion conducted with the Jacobian matrix for the original model grid. Our method enables computationally efficient, high-resolution analytic inversions of high-density satellite data.
- Indicates paper has been withdrawn from meeting
- Indicates an Award Winner