89th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting

Tuesday, 13 January 2009: 9:30 AM
Measurements of particulate matter over an industrial site in the island of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar and in situ sensors during TAMEX
Room 122A (Phoenix Convention Center)
George Georgoussis, Raymetrics S.A., Glyka Nera, Attika, Greece; and A. Papayannis, E. Remoudaki, G. Tsaknakis, R. Mamouri, G. Avdikos, C. Chontidiadis, P. Kokkalis, G. Koyloyris, M. Veenstra, and M. Tsezos

During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o, 24’N, 24o 01’E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008.

The industrial site of the city of Aliveri (Municipality of Tamyneon) is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. The first industrial complex produces electricity (300 MW) by fuel combustion. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx. The second industrial complex (HLGC) produces plaster, asphalt, concrete, cement, glass, fibres, bricks, tiles or ceramic products. Apart the use of secondary materials in the production line, this type of industry involves fuel combustion. According to the European Environment Agency (EAA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene.

The measuring site was at “Lykeio” and was equipped with a full meteorological station measuring atmospheric temperature, pressure, relative humidity and total solar radiation (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter sampling sensor on nuclepore filters from TCR-Tecora S.r.l. (Italy). The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while the Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The sequential substitution system of the filtering membrane with 16 membrane capacity, unified with the electronic flow rate controller allows continuous, unattended operations. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime, the strong local winds were diffusing the emitted particles to large distances, therefore the ambient PM concentrations were quite low (<20 ug/m3).

Based on a 2AP positioner from Kipp & Zonen B.V. (Holland) Raymetrics S.A. Greece has recently developed a new fully automated 3D scanning eye safe lidar system equipped with a 200 mm diameter telescope (LB11 ESS D-200 model). The lidar can work 24-hours per day, outdoor, under unattended operation under almost any weather condition. The single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the RHI mode is able to perform volume scanning of the atmosphere, both in the RHI and Plan-Position-Indicator (PPI) scanning modes. During TAMEX the lidar RHI scanning was performed with 1-5 degrees step. The lidar was located at the small village of Karavos, at a distance of about 1-1.5 km from the industrial complex area of Aliveri. The RHI scans revealed the presence of large quantities of dust over the industrial complex HLGC, which were largely diffused at ranges of several kilometres depending on the prevailing wind conditions. According to the lidar measurements large quantities of aerosols were found at heights of more than several hundred meters ASL. The DEI complex provided less quantities of aerosols than the HLGC, which were mainly found at ranges around 2-3 km around the complex. At greater distances these emissions were largely diffused as well.

Acknowledgements: This project is co-funded by the European Social Fund (80%) and National Resources (20%)-Third Community Support Framework (2000-2006), Ministry of Employment and Social Protection, Operational Program “Employment and Professional Skill”, Project “Support of unemployed workers with the active contribution from Non Governmental Organisations”.

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