92nd American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (January 22-26, 2012)

Tuesday, 24 January 2012
Analysis of Surface Urban Heat Island in Makurdi, Nigeria
Hall E (New Orleans Convention Center )
Bernard Tarza Tyubee, Benue State Univ., Makurdi, Nigeria; and R. N. C. Anyadike

Poster PDF (334.6 kB)

Surface urban heat island (SUHI) is a product of radical and irreversible change in land use/land cover (LULC) associated with urbanization. Understanding SUHI is fundamental in indoor climates and human comfort in cities. The study utilizes remote sensing, in conjunction with geographic information system (GIS), to explore the spatial, seasonal and temporal variability of SUHI characteristics over 15-year period as the result of land use/land cover change in Makurdi, North central Nigeria. A total of Twelve (12) Landsat TM/ETM+ images are acquired for April, June and January of 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 for the purpose of analyzing the SUHI characteristics. The results show areas of water, forest, undergrowth/wetland and cultivated land have decreased by 4km2, 37km2, 119km2 and 19km2 from 1991-2006. Conversely the area of built-up land has increased by 179km2 during the same period. Spatially, the minimum and maximum land surface temperature (ST) ranges from 27.5oC in water bodies to 50.7oC over built-up land, representing SUHI intensity of 23.2oC. The minimum and maximum mean monthly/seasonal ST varies from 35.5oC - 38.8oC (April), 30.8oC - 31.4oC (June) and 32.4oC - 34.5oC (January) from 1991 2006, representing SUHI intensities of 3.1oC (April), 1.3oC (June) and 2.1oC (January). The mean annual ST shows an increase from 32.9oC in 1991 to 35.9oC in 2006 and SUHI intensity of 3.0oC. The 2-D surface temperature profiles over the city indicate the occurrence of two warm cores, with peaks varying seasonally from 36oC - 41oC, on each side of Benue River that bisects the study area. The spatial, seasonal and long term changes in SUHI characteristics are attributed to the changes in land use/land cover types driven by urbanization. The implication of the research findings on human health, energy, air temperature, air pollution and urban planning in Makurdi is also highlighted.

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