Three EnKF cycles, using 32 ensemble members with a resolution of 27 km on the analysis grid (and 9 km in the forward forecast model), are prepared. A ‘Control' EnKF cycle is first produced with the assimilation of conventional observations (without radiances), but with the experimental CIMSS AMV data excluded. Next, a parallel EnKF cycle (‘CIMSS hourly') that includes these AMVs is computed over the life cycle of Sinlaku. Finally, a third parallel EnKF cycle (‘CIMSS hourly+RS') that includes both the hourly and rapid-scan CIMSS AMVs is produced. Rapid-scan AMVs were available during the second half of Sinlaku's life cycle.
In comparison to the ‘Control', the ‘CIMSS hourly' ensemble analyses generally produce lower track errors and better capture the rapid intensification. The ‘CIMSS hourly' analyses exhibit a deeper warm core and stronger low-level vorticity and convergence than the ‘Control', with values of mean sea level pressure that are generally more consistent with the best track. Analyses with respect to QuikSCAT winds and NRL P3 ELDORA radar wind will also be presented. A comparison of the respective steering flows reveals that the ‘CIMSS hourly' analyses possess a generally more accurate northwestward flow, while the flow in the ‘Control' analyses is typically more westward. The influence of assimilating the rapid-scan winds, and diagnostics of the covariance structure will also be presented.