The parent storm of the Birmingham to Tuscaloosa EF-4 tornado was extremely long-tracked (over 300 km), and produced an additional long-track EF-4 tornado from northeast of Birmingham into Georgia. The storm had an extremly impressive radar presentation, including a large debris ball that changed in reflectvity depending on the land cover it was passing over. The storm passed within 50 km of the Birmingham, AL WSR-88D radar, and was fairly steady state over a 20-minute period as it moved between Tuscaloosa and Birmingham. This, along with the fast movement of the storm, allows for synthetic dual-Doppler analysis to be performed. This analysis should reveal estimates of vertical motion, including the RFD and the extreme updraft. Using this data, an attempt will be made to determine the non-hydrostatic vertical PGF associated with the initially buoyancy-driven updraft's interaction with the high-shear environment.
The supercell that produced a long-track (almost 150 km) EF-5 tornado from Hackleburg, AL through the northwestern suburbs of Huntsville, AL, was moving along a strong thermal boundary that likely added even more horizontal vorticity and effective helicity. This storm moved within the dual-Doppler lobe between the UAH ARMOR radar and the Mobile Alabama X-Band (MAX) radar (that was positioned about 50 km to the NE of ARMOR, with both radars southeast of the tornado track). Single- and dual-Doppler analysis will be performed on this storm.