The era of satellite remote sensing successfully gave the world a global view of its oceans. Advances in remote sensing techniques have started to provide critical longer-term knowledge of the ocean dynamics. Surface and near surface measurements are routinely collected from space on ocean temperatures, height, color, roughness, salinity, currents and ice, all critical parameters for commerce, weather forecasting, national security and fisheries. Looking forward, there are significant challenges to maintaining and expanding this space-based infrastructure. Existing data records must be extended if we are going to see and understand longer trends. New measurements are needed increase our knowledge of the global ocean, especially those that provide a broader range of physical properties and at a greater depth, plus those that better characterize ocean-atmospheric exchange. We must balance the costs to continue heritage observations and add potentially game-changing new measurements: new technologies, and new models- physical and biogeochemical, development cycle, and business, are needed. Innovations must be found across the public, private, and academic sectors. New mission architectures will be required. Ultimately, satellites measurements and models will not be complete. In-situ measurements will always be required to help calibrate the satellites and take more complete data sets. There are critical parameters that cannot be measured from space (e.g. dissolved gases). And measurements at finer spatial scales (than those of satellites) and greater depths will be needed, too, for a complete picture. This panel will look at some of the innovations that are being investigated as we move forward to achieve better ocean science. This includes new technologies that make unique measurements of the subsurface as well as new approaches to bring down the cost of heritage observations without suffering loss in calibration accuracy that would impact the necessary long-term trends.