5A.3

**The Piazza Degree: temperature as a function of time**

**Pietro Piazza**, Pietro Piazza, P.E., Palm Coast, FL

The Piazza Degree evaluates the variation of the temperature as a function of time, expressing the value in a quantitative form, whereas the meteorological reports of today based on minima and maxima are indicative only, not reflecting the real heating and cooling degree days. The mathematics (based on the instantaneous area resulting from the product ‘temperature times time') demonstrates that the Piazza Degree is a derivation of Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees and its application is relatively simple; dedicated software develops the product temperature-time. Recorded experimental data have proven the validity of the system in daily meteorological reports, in extended periods and in forecasting based on differentials.

The Piazza Degree interpretation is an innovative concept in metrology. The Piazza Degree is a system to measure the temperature as a function of time; that is a form of quantitative heat that is related to an area on a Cartesian diagram, not to a point, by developing the product temperature-time (degree times time). Temperature, being an indication of heat, has no direct correlation with the quantity of it. Factor time is multiplied by the temperature which determines an area between the curve of the temperature and the axis X in analytic geometry. The Piazza Degree incorporates within itself the dimension of time, assuming a different value in accordance with a selected interval and period of time. When the temperature is multiplied by a certain period of time, it results in duration of time, which may be sustained at that level for the period considered.

The temperature-time concept has an instantaneous value, referring to an interval approaching 0 (-zero-). There are many intervals in a selected period, as many as can be selected. The meteorological reports of today are based on minima and maxima over a 24 hour periods, with no consideration of the variations within these limits. It is assumed that the maximum temperature at a certain hour is indicative of the quantitative heat, whether it was “hot or cold”, without evaluating the duration of the temperature. It is well known in kinematics that velocity is the derivative of distance with respect to time. Since the velocity is the increment of the distance in the unit of time, therefore we can define the Piazza Degree as the velocity of the temperature, being the derivative of the temperature with respect to time.

This parametric concept could be continued in the second derivative from which can be obtained the acceleration of the Piazza Degree, resulting in a rate of increments when two or more periods are considered, this would lead to a quantitative evaluation of weather at various spatial scales. In synthesis, the temperature, as we have interpreted it, has turned into a dynamic dimension. The mathematics applied is relatively simple: a computerized software algorithm can be designed to obtain in real time the quantitative data related to selected periods, from an infinitesimal fraction to years, with greater accuracy in quantitative value and its incremental variations.

The Piazza Degree finds its origin in the interpretation of weather temperature data, expressed in a quantitative degree-time form, a quantitative resolution in place of an indicative resolution. On a large scale the Piazza Degree can be used in the field of load forecasting; at a local level allows management of systems and equipments for heating and cooling with greater efficiency, providing benefits in the aspect of economy and in the environment.

In conclusion, the Piazza Degree is a leap forward in the interpretation of air temperature. It is a theoretical-practical system used in place of the minima and maxima observations that we are accustomed to. The concept temperature-time is an innovation in metrology; it will eventually ordinate, conceptually, the values of the temperature.

Copyright © 2008 TXu 1-575-852,

Italian Patent No. 0001359874

Session 5A, Applications in Meteorology, Oceanography, Hydrology and Climatology Part II

**Tuesday, 19 January 2010, 11:00 AM-12:00 PM**, B217** Previous paper
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