A review of adaptive observations
Since the advent of adaptive observations during the Hurricane Synoptic Flow experiments in the 1980s-90s, and the FASTEX experiment in 1997, several large and usually international field campaigns have taken place in which observations have been targeted at selected regions to improve forecasts of winter storms or tropical cyclones. Concurrently, collaborative efforts to improve the use of satellite data in numerical models have been ongoing. Numerous strategies have been proposed for the selection of adaptive observations, and an array of quantitative evaluations have been performed on the impact of assimilating these extra observations on numerical forecasts. Given the rapid evolution of this field during the past decade, the time is appropriate to review pertinent developments, successes, and shortcomings of these efforts, and to offer recommendations for advancing forecasting via adaptive observations in the future.