Findings from the refractivity relationships are applied to 1) the observed profiles of GPS refractivity near hurricanes; 2) comparisons to METEOSAT and CALIPSO; and 3) the summertime climatology of GPS refractivity for a wide area of the central and eastern Atlantic Ocean, including the main development region off the coast of Africa.
Probability relationships of dry (RH<50%) and moist (RH>75%) as a function of N, T, and p have been developed for operational use. Examples of this technique will be shown in the poster. Such a technique may be very useful when aircraft reconnaissance is not available to observe dry air intrusion or moist environments in the vicinity of convection or cloud cover. The potential uses of a refractivity nomogram will also be shown.