To address this unmet need, a collaborative team among Colorado State University, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Northrop Grumman Corporation is developing and fabricating the Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE (TWICE) radiometer instrument. TWICE is designed with size, mass, power consumption and downlink data rate compatible with deployment aboard a 6U-Class nanosatellite. TWICE is advancing the state of the art of spaceborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave radiometers by transitioning from Schottky mixer-based front ends to InP HEMT MMIC low-noise amplifier front ends, substantially reducing the radiometer's mass, volume and power consumption. New low-noise amplifiers and related front-end components are being designed and fabricated by JPL and Northrop Grumman based on InP HEMT MMIC technology up to 670 GHz. The TWICE instrument will provide 16 radiometer channels, including window frequencies near 240, 310 and 670 GHz to perform ice particle sizing and determine total ice water content, as well as four sounding channels each near 118 GHz for temperature sounding and near 183 GHz and 380 GHz for water vapor sounding during nearly all weather conditions, particularly useful in the upper troposphere in the presence of ice clouds.