The talk will conclude with a look at major contemporary observing challenges that are present in tornado research, and proposed methods to address them. In VORTEX-SE, formidable observing challenges are present owing to topography, land-use, and surface transportation issues. These challenges will likely require novel approaches involving a mix of numerical modelling and observations primarily targeting those phenomena that are amenable to observations. This is an area of active discussion in the VORTEX-SE planning community. A second major challenge to be described involves supercell tornadogenesis: it seems increasingly likely that very important processes are occurring in the lowest few-hundred meters of the atmosphere. New observing systems and approaches will likely be required to characterize these processes.