Fifth Conference on Urban Environment


Application of GIS to make 'Urban Environmental Climate Map' for Urban Planning

Takahiro Tanaka, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan; and M. Moriyama

The large city in Japan such as Tokyo, Osaka, and so on, have an originally hot and humid climate. The inhabitants of these cities are exposed to the more severe climate caused by urbanization. Therefore we must take countermeasures of urban heat island for comfortable life of inhabitants and reduction of energy consumption. This paper discusses the framework of “Urban Environmental Climate Map” and the method of making it using GIS. “Urban Environmental Climate Map” is made for the urban planning, architecture design, and environmental policy making. The role of this map is to provide the some information from the view of urban heat island mitigation to the place of decision making (including public involvement). So, the purpose of this map is to support decision. On “Urban Environmental Climate Map”, the essence of climate research output is described. When stakeholders (Citizen, Planner, Architect, Specialist, and so on.) make decision about urban planning, architecture design, and environmental policy, they can use this map as a communication tool. Generally speaking, GIS is a good tool for the communication of the people from some positions, because the information on the effective map is easy to understand for many people. Therefore we selected GIS as a tool to make “Urban Environmental Climate Map”. There are five advantages of using GIS to make “Urban Environmental Climate Map”. First is to be easy to modify the data, second is to be able to manage many data, third is to be able to use effective visualization, fourth is to be operated interactively by users (stakeholders), and fifth is to be easy to integrate with other type of data such as ecological data, social data, and so on. Fifth advantage is effective in the case of making comprehensive plan such as master plan and land use plan. “Urban Environmental Climate Maps” consists of two types of maps. One is “Climate Analysis Map”. This map represents the existing climate of discussed area. On this map, terrain, kilimatope, wind, and temperature are overlaid. “Terrain” is the relief made from the elevation data. “Klimatope” is German word which means a landscape unit from the view of climate, and this is based on land cover. For example, all of landscape units is divided to 10 klimatopes (forest climate, paddy field climate, field & grassland climate, industry climate, row-rise residential climate, medium-rise & high-rise climate, commercial climate, road climate, park climate, and water climate). “Wind” consists of three type of data. First is wind rose made from measured data, second is cold air drainage that was calculated, third is sea breeze and land breeze described by specialist. Temperature is measured data. The countermeasures of urban heat island mainly consist of three options. They are land cover alteration, anthropogenic heat reduction, and wind utilization related geographical features. This project focuses on the two of them, land cover alteration and wind utilization related geographical features. Therefore we treated these four elements of climate. Another is “Recommendation Map”. This map is made to show each option of countermeasure of urban heat island. The options are extracted through the discussion by specialist (climatologist) and planners. For example, they are “Road plan along the wind flow”, “Green area plan along the wind flow”, “Roof-Planting recommendation zone map”, “Tree-Planting recommendation zone map”, and so on. In this paper, we show “Urban Environmental Climate Map” of Osaka prefecture area (scale of data: 1/200,000), Osaka city area (scale of data: 1/25,000), and Kobe city area (scale of data: 1/25,000) that are made by framework we discuss. This is the new approach to apply the results of climate researches to planning and design.

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wrf recording  Recorded presentation

Session 2, the urban heat island effect (parallel with session 3)
Monday, 23 August 2004, 10:30 AM-11:45 AM

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