In the computations, we assume that the size distribution is the Marshall-Palmer distribution where we set the drop concentration N0 and the exponential slope b are parameters. We use Mie theory to calculate the backscattering cross section. The key of our calculations is that the radar reflectivity factors of rain by 95GHz cloud radar are different from those by 13.8GHz precipitation radar. That is, the backscattering of particles larger than 100 ƒÊm is beyond Rayleigh scattering region for 95GHz radar, while that for 13.8GHz is still within Rayleigh region. Because the attenuation by 95GHz cloud radar is stronger than that by 13.8GHz precipitation radar, we can retrieve N0 and b and calculate the rain rate. We compare the rain rate retrieved by our computations and that by the typical Z-R relationships. We also calculate the melting layers and retrieve their sizing.
In the observational results, we show the results of Doppler velocity observations. Because 95GHz radar and 13.8GHz radar have different size sensitivity, Doppler velocity observed by 95GHz radar is different from that by 13.8GHz radar. We also report that the melting layers have very strong radar echo for 13.8GHz radar, that has been known as the bright band, while those are weak for 95GHz radar.
We will also report the synergy rain and clouds observations by using 95GHz cloud radar and 5.3GHz radar in this winter. This is the ship-borne observation in 138E-2N, tropical zone. We will also show the size of tropical raindrop and the rain rate retrieved by using two radar.