Handout (2.7 MB)
During boreal winter, the ISO has a dominant eastward propagation (also known as Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO), which strongly modulates the tropical cyclones in South Indo-Pacific Ocean and active-break spells of Australian summer monsoon. Through tropical-extratropical tele-connection, the MJO regulates the heavy rainfall and snow storm events over western and eastern coasts of the United States. An inter-comparison study during DYNAMO period has revealed that current operational and research climate models show very good skill in forecasting successive MJO (with a preceding event) rather than the primary MJO (with no preceding event). Major remained issues include: i), the problem to reproduce MJO initiation and propagation and, ii) the difficulty to propagate model MJO over the Maritime Continent.
Improved representation of the ISO makes extended-range TC forecasting possible. Current numerical models have shown capability in forecasting some TC occurrences (e.g., Debby in late June over the Gulf of Mexico and Daniel in early July over the Eastern North Pacific) with a lead time of one-to-three weeks. The potential societal benefits of extended-range TC forecasting are tremendous. At the same time, great efforts are still needed to make routine extended-range forecasting of tropical cyclones more useful for applications. On intraseasonal time scale, current model forecasting of tropical cyclones still has various uncertainties: such as too many false alarms, some missing events and jumpy forecasts at different lead times.
Supplementary URL: http://iprc.soest.hawaii.edu/users/xfu/93rd_AMS/Poster_93rd_AMS_Fu.pdf