Monday, 11 January 2016
Composition and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols from Xi'an city (~400 m, altitude) in inland China during the spring of 2009 including a massive dust event on 24 April were measured and compared with a parallel measurement at the summit (2060 m, altitude) of Mt. Hua, an alpine site nearby Xi'an city. EC (elemental carbon), OC (organic carbon) and major ions in the city were 2–22 times higher than those on the mountaintop during the whole sampling period. Compared to that in the non-dust period a sharp increase in OC was observed at both sites during the dust period, which was mainly caused by an input of biogenic organics from the Gobi desert. However, adsorption/heterogeneous reaction of gaseous organics with dust was another important source of OC in the urban, contributing 22% of OC in the dust event. In contrast to the mountain atmosphere where fine particles were less acidic when dust was present, the urban fine particles became more acidic in the dust event than in the non-dust event, mainly due to enhanced heterogeneous formation of nitrate and diluted NH3. Cl- and NO-3 in the urban air during the dust event significantly shifted toward coarse particles. Such redistributions were further pronounced on the mountaintop when dust was present, resulting in both ions almost entirely staying in coarse particles. On the contrary, no significant spatial difference in size distribution of SO42- was found between the urban ground surface and the mountain atmosphere, which dominated in the fine mode (<2.1 μm) during the nonevent and comparably distributed in the fine (<2.1 μm) and coarse (>2.1 μm) modes during the dust event. Our results also showed that around 90% (in mass) of SO42- during the dust storm event was derived from Gobi desert surface soil, while around 70% of nitrate in the event was derived from heterogeneous reactions of local pollutants (i.e., gaseous HON3 and NOx) with dust particles, indicating a rapid formation of nitrate.
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