A number of studies nonetheless show important extratropical responses to non-ENSO anomaly patterns of tropical SST. Northern Hemisphere temperatures in boreal summer, for example, show evidence of response to SST anomalies in the western Pacific and broader Indo-Pacific, while tropical Atlantic SSTs are similarly associated with Northern Hemisphere climate anomalies at higher latitudes.
Here, several methods are used to illustrate connections of tropical Indo-Pacific and Atlantic SSTs upon extratropical anomalies in both hemispheres. Primary emphasis is placed on extratropical responses at seasonal to interannual time scales; however similar patterns identified on longer time scales suggest that low-frequency (multidecadal to century-scale) extratropical climate anomalies and changes have distinctive atmospheric connections to those observed in the tropics. These results carry implications for mechanistic interpretation of regional and global climate changes on a range of temporal scales.