For example, significant severe weather outbreaks can feature dozens of AACP storms across extensive geographic regions, and AACPs have been found above convection throughout the globe. AACPs were present within ~75% of the most significant severe storms observed by GOES from 2010-2015 across the US, those that generated 4.5+ inch hail, 90+ mph wind, and/or an EF4+ tornado (n=245 cases). Using 1-min GOES-14 super-rapid scan observation (SRSO) imagery, research has shown that ~60% of AACP storms present across several SRSO days were severe and the initial emergence of an AACP occurred on average 18 minutes prior to a report of severe weather (1+ inch hail, 58+ mph wind, and/or tornado). Tropopause-penetrating updrafts, commonly referred to as overshooting tops (OTs), are quite common in deep convection and especially evident and ubiquitous in GOES 30-60 SRSO imagery. But perhaps only 1% of OT-producing storms are severe compared to 60% of AACP storms. This leads us to believe that an AACP is the strongest indicator of a severe storm in satellite imagery documented to date and early recognition of an AACP could help improve warning lead time and/or confidence.
This presentation will highlight recent NASA-sponsored research on severe convection and AACP storms that helps to explain 1) the conditions favorable for AACP storms, 2) storm characteristics in radar, satellite, and lightning imagery/products before, during, and after AACP generation, and 3) AACP relationship with severe weather, taking advantage of GOES-14 and -16 super-rapid scan imagery to define AACP lifetimes as precisely as possible.