Evaluation and adaptation of a regional climate model for the Horn of Africa: Rainfall climatology and interannual variability
To reduce rainfall overestimation by the Emanuel scheme, several sensitivity experiments are performed by varying the key parameters that control the rate of convective mass flux, the fraction of condensed water converted to precipitation, and the heating and moistening characteristics of the environment. Results show that the amount of condensed water that ultimately falls out as rain crucially affects simulated rainfall amounts. With an appropriate adjustment to this key parameter, the excessive rainfall amount produced by the Emanuel scheme is reduced substantially. Furthermore, evaluation of RegCM3 simulations for 1982-1999 shows that the modified Emanuel convective scheme not only reproduces the 18-year average rainfall realistically but also captures the interannual variability adequately over the Horn of Africa. The correlation between the modified Emanuel-simulated and Ethiopian station rainfall is quite strong (+0.66). This customized ICTP RegCM3 model now can be used with confidence for the Horn of Africa to study regional rainfall processes and variability and to dynamically downscale seasonal rainfall forecasts.