Results from the regression analysis show that the kinematic, thermodynamic and convective structures of the SMD-coupled AEWs have similar characteristics to AEWs observed in previous studies. As for the SMD field, positive anomalies occur in two regions relative to the AEW: one region is ahead of the AEW trough along the baroclinic zone (15-20°N), while the other region is farther north (22-27°N) and behind the AEW trough. The SMD signals are transported in the low-level ascent regions of the vertical motion north of the AEJ over Africa, but as the AEW crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the ascent regions weaken and the SMD propagation speeds change. The result is an elongated SMD plume over the Ocean, which is due to the merging of the signals between two successive AEWs.
The direct radiative effects of dust on the SMD-coupled AEWs are also investigated. The perturbation diabatic heating rate is combined with the perturbation temperature field to infer the structure of the diabatic generation term in the energetics of the SMD-coupled AEWs. The energetics are compared with the SMD-modified energetics obtained in a linear modeling study by Grogan et al. (2016, J. Atmos. Sci.).