Domestic and global assessments of production at the county, state, regional, and national scales are provided by USDA agencies and the international Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Producers typically rely on service providers for within-season assessments of their working lands. Remote sensing, field sampling, producer surveys, and crop growth models are among the technologies used for these assessments. New information from advanced remote and in situ sensors are becoming available that, when integrated with existing measurements, observations, and surveys, offer opportunities to improve the efficiency of the process while offering the potential for more robust and timely assessments. Recent advances of data processing algorithms and computer systems offer opportunities that can also improve assessments, including the identification of factors limiting production.